What is Wood? Classification and Different Types of Wood

Wood is a hard-fibrous material forming the trunk and branches of trees or shrubs. The
trees are first felled, and the timber logs are then cut in the saw mills to smaller sizes
and these wooden blocks are then used for making furniture.

Few of the characteristics of wood

  • It is light weight and sturdy 
  • Wood retains its thermal properties, hence it is resistant to high temperatures
  • Heat conductivity of wood is relatively low compared to aluminium, marble, steel or glass
  • It can absorb sound and echo
  • It is a bad conductor of electricity.

Classification of wood

Wood can be broadly classified as Softwood and Hardwood. Density is a major determinant of the strength of wood. Hardwoods, being denser than the softwoods, are stronger and more durable.

  1. Softwood – It comes from the coniferous trees. These trees are also known as evergreen trees as leaves do not fall till the new ones grow. Softwood usually grows in regions having a cold climate. Coniferous trees grow fast; hence, they are less expensive as compared to hardwood. They are more sustainable as they can be easily grown. Soft Wood has tints of yellow or red and is less expensive compared to Hardwood. 
  2. Hardwood – It comes from deciduous trees that have broad leaves, produce fruits or nuts, and are generally inactive in the winter. Hardwoods have a more dense structure in comparison to softwoods. Hardwood has darker shades of red and brown and is a bit expensive. 

Types of Wood

Types of Wood
SoftwoodHardwood
Pine wood
Cedar wood
Spruce wood
Deodar wood 
Teak wood
Rose wood
Oak wood
Maple wood
Ash wood
Mango wood
Neem wood
Mahogany wood
Beech wood
Walnut wood
Marandi wood

1) Pinewood – Pinewood is a soft, white or light-yellow wood which is light in weight and straight-grained. It resists shrinkage, swelling, and warping. Pine is very easy to shape and stain. It is suitable for using in house construction, making furniture, boxes and wall decorations. Density of pine is 352-849 kg/m3.

Pinewood
Pinewood

2) Cedar wood – Cedarwood is knotty softwood that has a red-brown color with light lines. Cedar is soft as compared to other softwoods. The wood texture is uniform and highly resistant to decay and insects. This wood is most suitable for cabinet construction, chests of drawers, roof coverings, cabinets, decks and poles. Density of cedarwood is 368-577 kg/m3.

Cedar wood
Cedar wood

3) Spruce – Spruce wood is strong and hard. It finishes well and has a low resistance to decay. It has moderate shrinkage and is light in weight. It is suitable for ships poles, stools, millwork, ladders, boxes, crates and also containers. It is also used in panelling of exterior walls, gate, gazebo etc. Density of cedarwood is 400-705 kg/m3.

Spruce
Spruce

4) Deodar – It is yellowish brown in colour. It is used for making cheap furniture, railway carriages, railway sleepers, packing boxes, structural work and so forth. Density of Devdhar is 560 kg/m3. It is also used during the construction.

Deodar

5) Teakwood – It is one of the most popular types of hardwood. It is yellow to dark brown in colour and is extremely heavy, strong, durable, weather-resistant, warp-resistant, and does not decay. Often strongly figured, teak may show straight grain pattern. The natural oils in teak make them termite and pest-resistant. Different types of teak wood are Ghana Teak, Ivory Teak, Sudan Teak, Tanzania Teak, Burma Teak. Density of Teakwood is 740-1000 kg/m3.

Teak wood
Teak wood

It is commonly used as a structural wood for wooden framed houses, doors, windows, and partitions. It is an excellent choice for outdoor furniture like garden benches and lounge chairs. Most homeowners prefer teak for their indoor furniture like beds and wardrobes.

Thumb rule for identifying different types of Teak wood

Sp Ghana TeakWhitish-yellow in colour
40% white 60% Yellow (Approx)
Lot of knots visible on the surface
Ivory TeakYellowish in colour
15-20% white 80-85% Yellow (Approx)
Less knots compared to Ghana Teak
Sudan TeakYellowish-Brown in colour
5-7% white 93-95% Yellowish-brown
Less knots compared to Ghana Teak and Ivory Teak
Tanzania TeakBrownish in colour with occasional black veins
100% brown in colour
Black coloured knots sometimes get visible
Burma TeakLight brown in colour
3-5% white 95-97% light brown
Straight-line figure with occasional knots

6) Rose-wood – It is very hard and has a dark reddish-brown colour. It has a unique fragrance. It is hard to work on and needs a lot of polishing. East Indian rosewood is also called as Sheesham in hindi. Rosewood is used in musical instruments, piano cases, tool handles, art projects, decorative veneers, and furniture. Density of rose-wood is 800-880 kg/m3.

Rose wood
Rose wood

7) Oak-wood – It is a heavy, strong, light-coloured hardwood. It is very easy to work on. It has good resistance to moisture, fungus, and yeast. It is an excellent choice for household and office furniture like bookshelves and cabinets. It is also widely preferred for outdoor furniture. Interior decor experts are also employing oak for flooring, timber-framed structures, and veneer production. Density of rose-wood is 600-897 kg/m3.

Oak wood
Oak wood

8) Maplewood – It has curly grains. Maple wood has a fine texture with great strength. It is extensively used in making household furniture like console tables, wall shelves, and bedside tables. Density of maple wood is 625-753 kg/m3.

Maplewood
Maplewood

9) Ash-wood – It is a hard and heavy wood. Ash is well-known for its elasticity and strength. It has a prominent grain that looks like oakwood and is white to light brown in colour. Ash is widely used for structural frames and steam bent furniture pieces. It is used in making guitars, drum shells, frames, sports equipment, ladders, and baseball bats. Decorative veneers are produced from ash due to its interesting grain.

Ash-wood
Ash wood

10) Mangowood – It is dense and strong hardwood which comes with a distinctly attractive grain pattern. Its grain is unique as it embodies several tones and colours, ranging from light shades like dark brown with hints of green. It is lighter than other wood types and highly water-resistant. It is best used for living room and bedroom furniture, nesting tables, kitchen cabinets, entertainment units, and bookshelves.

Mango Wood
Mango Wood

11) Neem wood – It is reddish-brown in colour and very much similar to Mahogany. It is strong and durable. Its grains are interlocked, and consequently the wood does not split apart very easily. It is used in making toys, home accessories, bed side tables, bar units, metal furniture etc. 

Neem wood
Neem wood

12) Mahogany wood – The wood is reddish-brown in colour with red colour more prominent. It is strong, with a uniform pore structure. It is an excellent carving wood and finishes well. It is most commonly used in fashion cabinets, nested tables, dining table sets, and other types of indoor furniture. Mahogany is also used in boat building, window frames and veneers. Density of mahogany wood is 497-850 kg/m3

Mahogany wood
Mahogany wood

13) Beech wood -It is a hard, strong, and heavy wood with tiny pores. It is light pink in colour. Beech is used for laser carving and variety of wooden accessories which can be used at home and office. It is also called as Steam beech.

Beech wood
Beech wood
Beech wood

14) Walnut – It is one of the most versatile and popular wood types with a very fine texture. The wood is light to dark chocolate brown in colour. It is an ideal wood choice for crafting dining table sets, coffee tables, veneer, musical instruments, gun stocks and wall panelling. Density of walnut wood is 641-689 kg/m3

Walnut
Walnut

15) Marandi – It is light, soft and have uniform texture. It is reddish in colour. It is used in making window frames and wooden partitions. It is mostly imported from Malaysia. It can be also used in making shoe racks, chests, drawers, trunks and other decorative items.

Marandi
Marandi

Plymart is a leading supplier of timber products across the country. At Plymart we offer you a wide range of teak wood products which can be used in making furniture, wall panelling, door frames and window frames. Our product range includes Ghana teak, Ivory teak, Sudan teak, Tanzania Teak, Burma Teak and Valsadi Sag. We also supply Marentee, Spruce, Pine, Chill, Steam Beech, White Ash, White Oak and Walnut. 

At Plymart, we offer you the best rates for the teak wood. Plymart is the most convenient place to buy timber products online. To know more visit www.plymart.in

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